Using neuronal cells or cell lines, NDI offers the following in vitro assays. In all assays, effects on cell viability are measured with the LDH, MTT or AM calcein test. Additionally IP3, caspase active and specific proteins can be measured.
Low Serum Assay: A cell stress-assay in which deprivation of fetal serum induces apoptosis and neuronal cell death.
NMDA or L-Glutamate Lesion Assay: Glutamate and NMDA are used to simulate the excitotoxic component of ischemic damage, opening receptor dependent Ca2+ channels, leading to acute Ca2+ overflow and over-stimulation of enzymatic pathways.
Ionomycin Lesion Assay: Ionomycin lesion leads to an increase of Ca2+ and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ depots. The resulting condition mimics the pathology seen following stroke and other neurodegenerative conditions.
Iodoacetate Lesion Assay: I odoacetate is used to inhibit SH-containing enzymes, leading to glycolysis and ATP blockage and eventually ATP depletion.
Sodium Cyanide Lesion: NaCn treatment prevents oxidative phosphorylation via interaction with iron in cytochrome C, preventing intracellular oxygen utilization, which forces anaerobic metabolism and creation of excess lactic acid.
Staurosporine Lesion: Staurosporine is an nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor that induces apoptosis.
Okadaic Acid (OA) Lesion: OA is a protein phosphatase 1 and 2 inhibitor, whose action leads to changes in the cytoskeleton that are associated with neurodegeneration, including Tau hyperphosphorylation.
Tunicamycin Lesion: Tunicamycin is an antibiotic that inhibits protein glycosylation and induces neurodegeneration.
Iron Lesion (FeNTA, FeCl2 Ammonium Iron-III-citrate): Treatment with FeNTA, AC-Fe3+ and FeCl2 produce conditions of radical stress.