Acceleration induced concussive-type injury (Lateral Impact (LI) model)
The standard animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have demonstrated poor translational ability, thought to result from the greater variability in injury response seen in humans compared to the injury responses obtained under the more tightly controlled conditions of typical animal models. A newly developed model in rodents attempts to achieve a more naturalistic (heterogeneous) response by mimicking the forces active in concussive-type injuries that result from sports and motor vehicle-caused head trauma.
The injury is closed-head, and allows the head and body to move freely in response to the impact forces, thus permitting acceleration/deceleration and rotational forces to act on the brain. As with concussions in humans, there is no observable damage to the brain and an extremely low mortality rate. Also similar to human concussions, there are lingering behavioral deficits.
Clinically, sports head injuries are often repetitive. In this model, repetitive concussive injuries produce different results in males and females (click here).
Below is an example of the model shown graphically.
Click here for a more detailed description.
For an example study, testing protective headgear, click here .
Seizures may result from more traumatic head injuries (post-traumatic epilepsy), along with long-term neuropathology, and these are modeled using a fixed-head, mid-line or lateralized fluid percussion injury model. Click here for examples (TBI tacrolimus; TBI spine density).